Malaria the most parasitic disease in the world. It kills nearly 2 million people each year. Malaria parasite is the single-celled protozoan parasite that too small to be seen by the naked eye.
- WHO | Malaria
Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes. In the human body, the parasites multipl...
What is Malaria?Malaria is a preventable and treatable blood disease caused by a parasite and transmitted from person to person by certain types of mosquitoes. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can shorten the duration of the infection and prevent further complications or death.
Where does malaria occur?
Malaria is endemic in 106 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Central & South America, and Oceania. It occurs mostly in poor, tropical and subtropical areas of the world.
The area most affected is sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 90% of the deaths occur. This is due to a very efficient mosquito vector (Anopheles gambiae), which assures high transmission, and the predominant parasite species (Plasmodium falciparum) that causes the most severe form of malaria.
Terms You Should Know About Malaria
A decrease in number of red blood cells and/or quantity of hemoglobin. Malaria causes anemia through rupture of red blood cells. The anemia caused may be extreme. Pallor may be visible in the patient.
A cage, generally made of cloth, that is baited with an animal such as a cow, goat, etc. Collections of mosquitoes are made on the walls of this trap to assess and compare populations biting domestic animals with populations in...
Usually, people get malaria by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito.
Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes. In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells. Usually, people get malaria by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Only Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria and they must have been infected through a previous blood meal taken on an infected person. When a mosquito bites an infected person, a small amount of blood is taken in which contains microscopic malaria parasites. About 1 week later, when the mosquito takes its next blood meal, these parasites mix with the mosquito’s saliva and are injected into the person being bitten.
Because the malaria parasite is found in red blood cells of an infected...
Malaria is caused by a protist in the genus Plasmodium. While Plasmodium falciparum is the most common species, three or four other species are also causes of malaria in humans, and dozens of other species cause malaria or malaria-like diseases in other animals, including mammals, birds and reptiles.
Plasmodium is transmitted through bites of several species of mosquito from the genus Anopheles. Once injected into the final host (e.g., human), the plasmodia remain in the skin for several hours, then migrate to lymph nodes, spleen and liver where they undergo several transformations. The final stage - the gametocyte - migrates into the red blood cells. Inside each red blood cell one can find a large number of...
What are the symptoms of malaria and how long after they appear? The symptoms of malaria are similar to the flu. They usually occur between 12 to 30 days after the bite of the mosquito. The symptoms are:
- Sudden and violent chills
- Headache and muscle
- High fever (about 47 degrees)
- Vomiting and nausea
- Diarrhea and jaundice
- In lab tests, a chemical produced by seaweed killed the malaria parasite that anopheles mosquitoes transmit. Photograph: Rex Features
A type of tropical seaweed may hold the key to producing the next generation of treatments for malaria, say scientists. The seaweed contains a compound that it uses to fight off fungal infections, but it has now shown promise against malaria as well.
Treatment of Malaria:
• If evidence of life-threatening hemolytic anemia is determined, establish large-bore intravenous (IV) lines, initiate fluid resuscitation, and administer transfusion of type-specific packed RBCs.
• P.falciparum based infection can be treated with the drug quinine (orally in mild cases or by intravenous infusion in more severe cases).
• Search for any signs of microvascular malarial complications.
• In cases of marlarial drug resistance, mefloquine, artemisinin derivatives and malarone can be used.
Prevention is based on avoiding exposure to mosquitoes and aggressively treating people who are infected. Malaria control programs in many parts of the world are underfunded and ineffective. If you are traveling to an area where malaria is common, take antimalarial drugs exactly as prescribed by your physician and prevent mosquito bites by
Facts About Dengue Fever
Closing windows at night if possible
Sleeping with a mosquito net, preferably one containing an insecticide, with the edges tucked under the mattress
- CDC: Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever.
Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are viral diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, usually Aedes Aegypti. The four dengue viruses (DE...
Dengue fever can be defined as a health disorder caused by mosquitoes. Dengue fever is a viral disease which is spreaded by mosquitoes from one human to other. People feel this type of fever about 4-5 days of biting of mosquito. It’s not a very old health condition. It come about 4-5 years ago.
This fever is caused when a mosquito carrying dengue virus bites you. Mostly dengue strikes unhealthy people or I want to say people having low immunity power. If your immune system is strong enough then the chances of dengue fever is very less as compare to others.
Over 1,000 cases of Dengue Fever have been reported recently in Cape Verde, including 6 deaths. Dengue is a virus carried by mosquitoes. There are two types of Dengue virus. Type 1 symptoms include high fever, rash, head and body aches, chills, diarrhea, vomiting, and exhaustion. More severe versions – Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome – are typically caused by Type 2.
Types of Dengue Fever
There are three types of Dengue fever
a) Classical Dengue
b) Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)
c) Dengue shock syndrome
Classical dengue presents with fever, headache, backache with severe myalgia so it is also called “break bone fever”. Fever last for a week and some maculo papular rash can occur beginning from the trunk. Epistaxis and bleeding from Gums can also be a feature.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is the start of complication and as the name suggests there is internal bleeding leading to fall in blood pressure and...
Symptoms of Dengue:
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a more severe form of the viral illness. Symptoms such as headache, fever, exhaustion, severe joint and muscle pain, swollen glands (lymphadenopathy), and rash. The presence (the “dengue triad”) of fever, rash, and headache (and other pains) is particularly characteristic of dengue fever.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is one types of dengue fever that results to fever, headaches, purplish or reddish rashes on the victim’s body. It also caused other signs of hemorrhage in the victim’s body.
A specific type of dengue fever called the dengue hemorrhagic fever is more common than the other types of fever. This type is also called the dengue fever rash because it mainly leads to symptoms like fever, headaches, rash on the victim’s body, and other signs of hemorrhage in the victim’s body. Purplish or reddish blisters also begin to appear under the surface of the victim’s skin. The victim will notice that he or she is now getting more easily bruised and might also experience other symptoms like black stools and bleeding in the gums or nose.
The dengue fever rash is the most deadly form of this illness. It is mostly life threatening and...
What is the treatment for dengue fever?
Because dengue fever is caused by a virus, there is no specific medicine or antibiotic to treat it. For typical dengue, the treatment is purely concerned with relief of the symptoms. Rest and fluid intake for adequate hydration is important. Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should only be taken under a doctor’s supervision because of the possibility of worsening bleeding complications. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and codeine may be given for severe headache and for joint and muscle pain (myalgia).
There is no specific treatment for classic dengue fever, and like most people you will recover completely within 2 weeks. To help with recovery, health care experts recommend
- Getting plenty of bed rest
- Drinking lots of fluids
- Taking medicine to reduce fever
CDC advises people with dengue fever not to take aspirin. Acetaminophen or other over-the-counter pain-reducing medicines are safe for most people.
- Home Remedies for Dengue FeverIf you have a mild form of the disease, your doctor will advocate creation sure to drink enough fluids to avoid dehydration from vomiting and high fever. You can also take acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) for pain and fever.Avoid aspirin or other no steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve). These can increase the risk of bleeding complication.If you have a more severe form of the ailment, treatment consists of sympathetic care in a hospital.Such cares includes intravenous fluids and electrolyte stand-in, maintaining adequate blood pressure and replace blood loss.If you have any form of dengue fever, you may also be kept away from mosquitoes, to avoid transmit the disease to others.
A virus causes dengue. It has no particular medicine or any antibiotic as a cure. Just the symptoms can be treated. Lots of fluid intake and rest is needed to cure dengue. Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs and aspirin should not be taken. For headache and muscle and joint pain, codeine and acetaminophen can be used.
Because precaution is better than cure, it is best to take precautions to ensure that you do not come down with dengue fever. Do not keep the water stagnant for more than 2 days, use mosquito repellents at nights and keep handy rackets with you to kill any mosquitoes flying around your vicinity. Also, if you are in a mosquito infested area, keep doors and windows covered with screens, and use mosquito repellant.
The best thing is to prevent so that no family members affected by dengue. The actions that can be done to prevent it are:
- Prevent mosquito breeding around us. You can do that is Closes 3M movement of water storage, drain the tub and Burying the goods unused.
- Prevent mosquitoes do not bite, for example by using mosquito repellent lotion or medication.
- Abate powder carrying around an ungainly on sewer and water reservoirs so as not to be a breeding place for mosquitoes.
- Keep healthy condition. The condition of a strong body, helps the body to ward off viruses that enter so that even if exposed to mosquito...
Dengue Fever Prevention
There is as yet no vaccine to protect against Dengue fever and the only way to prevent dengue virus transmission is to avoid being bitten by the disease-carrying mosquitoes.
This is done by controlling or preventing Dengue virus transmission which prevents the vector mosquitoes spreading the disease even further.
Aedes aegypti breeds mainly in man-made containers such as earthenware jars, metal drums and concrete cisterns used for domestic water storage, but discarded plastic food containers and toys, old tyres and other items that can collect rainwater, gutters ,...